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More detailed information about stringed instruments and the history of violin making.


The bow makers of Markneukirchen: Knopf, Pfretzschner, Rau


Markneukirchen bow makers and the origins of violin bow making in Germany


As the art of building stringed instruments flourished in Markneukirchen, it had several effects which not only included in a greater division of labour in violin making. In addition, related businesses evolved: manufacturers began producing strings, and bow makers opened studios which rank among the oldest and most important in Germany. Despite the fact that efforts to establish a separate guild of Markneukirchen bow makers failed in 1790 due to opposition from the violin makers' guild, this nevertheless reflects that manufacturing fine bows for stringed instruments had become its own distinct tradition in Markneukirchen.


strong>KnopfOne of the first to make bows in Germany was bow maker Christian Wilhelm Knopf (1767-1837), the pater familias of a large line of bow makers. As a brilliant master and the inventor of the metal eyelet for the frog, he continued the tradition of the European pioneers of bow makers, John Dodd (1752-1839) and François Xavier Tourte (1747–1835). C. W. Knopf's descendants went on to make names for themselves far beyond the Vogtland region; here special mention should be made of Heinrich "Henry" Knopf (*1860) and J. Wilhelm Knopf (b. 1835), whose contemporaries regarded him as the country's finest bow maker.

Pfretzschner: Markneukirchen bow maker Hermann Richard Pfretzschner (1857–1921), son of an important Markneukirchen family of violin makers and merchants, attained international acclaim: the last major student of J. B. Vuillaume was the pioneer of French bow making standards in Germany.


Markneukirchen bow maker August Rau (b. 1866) produced outstanding violin and cello bows which can hold their own in comparisons to French masterpieces. After his apprenticeship in Markneukirchen, August Rau studied under Wilhelm Knopf and A. R. Weichold in Dresden before returning to his hometown to open his own workshop. August Rau used his excellent craftsmanship to craft pernambuco wood into both light and heavy bows.

The "Bows" section features our attractive online selection of violin bows for sale, and French violins and German violins, with audio sound samples.



Related articles in our information archive:

On the history of the violin bow

Ludwig Bausch: the "German Tourte"

Hopf: a dynasty of Vogtland violin makers

Fine violins of Germany and other countries

New arrivals in our catalogue
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  • WORKED OVER AND IMPROVED French violin,Charles Simonin, approx. 1860
  • WORKED OVER AND IMPROVED Bavarian master violin, approx. 1800 (certificate Hieronymus Köstler)
  • WORKED OVER AND IMPROVED Petite, late 18th century Italian violin (certificate Hieronymus Köstler)
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  • French master violin bow, c.1890, Charles Nicolas Bazin (certificate J.-F. Raffin)
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  • Markneukirchen violin by C. A. Götz, 1937
  • Old Markneukirchen 3/4 violin, c.1940
  • Old Markneukirchen violin with a warm sound, 1930's
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  • German violin bow. Very good playing qualities
  • Charles Nicolas Bazin: fine and powerful French cello bow (certificate J.-F. Raffin)
  • Matthias Klotz 1982: Modern Mittenwald viola
  • 19th century violin from Mittenwald, approx. 1850
  • Italian violin, Raffaele Calace e figlio 1929
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  • WORKED OVER AND IMPROVED: Old Italian violin, Stefano Caponetti (certificate Christian Lijsen)
  • Antique German violin after Stainer, c.1910
  • Contemporary English violin, Elspeth Noble 1991 - Guarnerius model
  • Fine 18th century violin, Klotz circle, approx. 1790 (certificate Hieronyms Köstler)
  • Contemporary Italian violin by Giovanni Lazzaro, Padua 1990